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This layer is mainly composed of extremely low densities of hydrogen, helium and several heavier molecules including nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide closer to the exobase.
Air also contains a variable amount of water vapor, on average around 1% at sea level, and 0.4% over the entire atmosphere.
The concentration of water vapor (a greenhouse gas) varies significantly from around 10 ppm by volume in the coldest portions of the atmosphere to as much as 5% by volume in hot, humid air masses, and concentrations of other atmospheric gases are typically quoted in terms of dry air (without water vapor).
among which are the greenhouse gases, principally carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
The atmosphere of Earth protects life on Earth by creating pressure allowing for liquid water to exist on the Earth's surface, absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention (greenhouse effect), and reducing temperature extremes between day and night (the diurnal temperature variation).
Thus, the exosphere no longer behaves like a gas, and the particles constantly escape into space.
These free-moving particles follow ballistic trajectories and may migrate in and out of the magnetosphere or the solar wind.
Layers drawn to scale, objects within the layers are not to scale.
Aurorae shown here at the bottom of the thermosphere can actually form at any altitude in this atmospheric layer.
It extends from the mesopause (which separates it from the mesosphere) at an altitude of about 80 km (50 mi; 260,000 ft) up to the thermopause at an altitude range of 500–1000 km (310–620 mi; 1,600,000–3,300,000 ft).
The height of the thermopause varies considerably due to changes in solar activity.
The exosphere contains most of the satellites orbiting Earth.