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For the background he made use of certain data such as the "Liber Pontificalis", a chronicle of the popes from St.
But it was especially in the form of the letters that the forger played the plagiarist.
Thus it happens that popes of the first three centuries are made to quote documents that did not appear until the fourth or fifth century; and later popes up to Gregory I (590-604) are found employing documents dating from the sixth, seventh, and eighth centuries, and the early part of the ninth. The Middle Ages were deceived by this huge forgery, but during the Renaissance men of learning and the canonists generally began to recognize the fraud.
Two cardinals, John of Torquemada (1468) and Nicholas of Cusa (1464), declared the earlier documents to be forgeries, especially those purporting to be by Clement and Anacletus. Erasmus (died 1536) and canonists who had joined the Reformation, such as Charles du Moulin (died 1568), or Catholic canonists like Antoine* le Conte (died 1586), and after them the Centuriators of Magdeburg, in 1559, put the question squarely before the learned world.
(2) A treatise on the Primitive Church and on the Council of Nicæa, written by Isidore, and followed by the authentic canons of fifty-four councils.
It should be remarked, however, that among the canons of the second Council of Seville (page 438) canon vii is an interpolation aimed against .
Since then the apocryphal nature of the decretals of Isidore has been an established historical fact.
The last of the false decretals that had escaped the keen criticism of Blondel were pointed out by two Catholic priests, the brothers Ballerini, in the eighteenth century.
Isidore was too clever to invent these documents out of his own head.
For the most part he plagiarized them in substance, and often in form.
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These documents, to the number of about one hundred, appeared suddenly in the ninth century and are nowhere mentioned before that time.