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Today, as the capital of an independent Uzbekistan, Tashkent retains a multi-ethnic population, with ethnic Uzbeks as the majority.
The Tsar liberally rewarded Chernyayev and his men with medals and bonuses, but regarded the impulsive general as a "loose cannon", and soon replaced him with General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman.
In ancient times, this area contained Beitian, probably the summer "capital" of the Kangju confederacy.
In pre-Islamic and early Islamic times, the town and the province were known as Chach.
The Trans-Caspian Railway arrived in 1889, and the railway workers who built it settled in Tashkent as well, bringing with them the seeds of Bolshevik Revolution.
With the fall of the Russian Empire, the Russian Provisional Government removed all civil restrictions based on religion and nationality, contributing to local enthusiasm for the February Revolution.
The principality of Chach had a square citadel built around the 5th to 3rd centuries BC, some 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) south of the Syr Darya River.
By the 7th century AD, Chach had more than 30 towns and a network of over 50 canals, forming a trade center between the Sogdians and Turkic nomads. – 664 AD), who travelled from China to India through Central Asia, mentioned the name of the city as Zhěshí 赭時.After its destruction by Genghis Khan in 1219, the city was rebuilt and profited from the Silk Road.From 18th to 19th century, the city became an independent city-state, before being re-conquered by the Khanate of Kokand.Far from being granted independence, Tashkent became the capital of the new territory of Russian Turkistan, with Kaufman as first Governor-General.A cantonment and Russian settlement were built across the Ankhor Canal from the old city, and Russian settlers and merchants poured in.The Shahnameh of Ferdowsi also refers to the city as Chach.