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Brown and Gilman term this the semantics of solidarity.Thus a speaker might have a choice of pronoun, depending on how they perceived the relationship with the person addressed.
However, Brown and Gilman note that it was only between the twelfth and fourteenth centuries that the norms for the use of T- and V-forms crystallized.Speakers developed greater flexibility of pronoun use by redefining relationships between individuals.Instead of defining the father-son relationship as one of power, it could be seen as a shared family relationship.Two particularly common means are This was a historical and contemporary survey of the uses of pronouns of address, seen as semantic markers of social relationships between individuals.The study considered mainly French, Italian, Spanish and German.The paper was highly influential and with few exceptions, the terms T and V have been used in subsequent studies.
In Latin, tu was originally the singular, and vos the plural, with no distinction for honorific or familiar.
The morphosyntactic T–V distinction, though, is found in a variety of languages around the world.
Modern English technically has the T–V distinction, manifested in the pronouns thou and you, though the familiar thou is no longer used in most contemporary dialects.
Additionally British commoners have historically spoken to nobility and royalty using the third person rather than the second person, a practice that has fallen out of favor.
English speakers today often employ semantic analogues to convey the mentioned attitudes towards the addressee, such as whether to address someone by given or surname, or whether to use sir/ma'am.
In the Early Middle Ages (the 5th century to the 10th century), the pronoun vos was used to address the most exalted figures, emperors and popes, who would use the pronoun tu to address a subject.