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The experiences of homophobia may exert their effects on sexual risk taking indirectly by exacerbating mental health burden (Halkitis, 2010b; Johnson, Carrico, Chesney, & Morin, 2008).
This topic will be considered from the theoretical perspective of minority stress theory, with attention to (a) how clinicians can effectively address these social burdens with their clients, (b) the work of AIDS service organizations, and (c) policy in light of the the summer before my freshman year at Columbia University.
Recently our research team at the Center for Health Identity, Behavior and Prevention Studies (CHIBPS) at New York University documented the risks and resiliencies of young gay and bisexual men ages 13–29 in a study named (see Camic, Rhodes, & Yardley, 2003), we recorded these young men’s fears, hopes, and dreams in relation to emerging adulthood, dating, sex and HIV. taken back because they think I brought disgrace to the family.
Some spoke very clearly about experiences of homophobia in their lives (Halkitis, Moeller, & Siconolfi, 2010a, 2010b). These realities extend to school environments, which, as a microcosm of society, are often filled with victimization and oppression of those who do not present with heterosexual identity (Espelage & Swearer, 2008; Kosciw, Greytak, Diaz, & Bartkiewicz, 2010).
More recently, with the game-changing breakthroughs in the biomedical arena, attention has shifted to these biomedical prevention strategies, which include preexposure prophylaxis (Pr EP) for gay, bisexual, and other MSM (Grant et al., 2010) and vaginal microbicides for women (Abdool et al., 2010). In a forthcoming report, also requested by ONAP, the committee will address the broad question of how to obtain national estimates that characterize the health care of people living with HIV in the United States.
In this biomedical approach, the early detection and treatment of HIV have been recommended policy for the last several years (CDC, 2006; Workowski & Berman, 2006) as a way to decrease community viral load. The second report will include discussion of challenges and best practices from previous large-scale and nationally representative studies of PLWHA as well as other populations.
This burden becomes abundantly clear when we consider the epidemiological data.
Despite the fact that gay and bisexual men constitute approximately 2–4 percent of the U. male population 18–44 years of age (Chandra, Mosher, Copen, & Sionean, 2011), MSM, primarily gay and bisexual men, account for more than 50 percent of all AIDS cases and all HIV infections and 57 percent all new HIV infections (CDC, 2011b).
Over the last 30 years, efforts to prevent new HIV infections among gay and bisexual men have been guided by paradigms that hold individuals responsible for their health behaviors. HIV Care in the United States addresses existing gaps in the collection, analysis, and integration of data on the care and treatment experiences of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA).
These approaches, rooted primarily in social-cognitive frameworks (Halkitis, 2010b), have resulted in maintaining new infections in the United States at a steady state for the last decade (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2011b). Psychosocial issues among gay and non-gay-identifying HIV-seropositive African American and Latino MSM. This report identifies critical data and indicators related to continuous HIV care and access to supportive services, assesses the impact of the NHAS and the ACA on improvements in HIV care, and identifies public and private data systems that capture the data needed to estimate these indicators.
In this article, consideration is given to the manner through which discrimination and homophobia, which may have been heightened because of the AIDS epidemic (Halkitis, 1999), perpetuate HIV vulnerabilities for gay and bisexual men. Childhood sexual abuse is highly associated with HIV risk-taking behavior and infection among MSM in the EXPLORE study.
Such health vulnerabilities driven by homophobia are often exacerbated for gay and bisexual men of color, who are often further burdened by the social circumstances of racism and poverty.
Unlike other marginalized groups (e.g., immigrants) who grow up with people like themselves and who receive the support of their families, gay and bisexual youth frequently have more complicated and often abusive family dynamics (D’Augelli, Hershberger, & Pilkington, 1998; Pilkington & D’Augelli, 1995).