Amino acid dating fossils
Amino acid dating fossils
E) It includes a series that shows the gradual change of scales into fur.14) If a fossil is encased in a stratum of sedimentary rock without any strata of igneous rock (for example, lava, volcanic ash) nearby, then it should be A) easy to determine the absolute age of the fossil, because the radioisotopes in the sediments will not have been “reset” by the heat of the igneous rocks. C) He would have placed them in more species than modern botanists do. It, and the loss of limbs by snakes, are an example of similar adaptations to a similar environment. A) species selection B) uniformitarianism C) sexual selection D) convergent evolution39) The existence of evolutionary trends, such as increasing body sizes among horse species, is evidence that A) a larger volume-to-surface area ratio is beneficial to all mammals. C) evolution always tends toward increased complexity or increased size.
the lack of experimental evidence that organic monomers can form by abiotic synthesis 3.
E) Recent evidence supports the contention that the Cambrian explosion may not have been as “explosive” as was once thought.18) What is thought to be the correct sequence of these events, from earliest to most recent, in the evolution of life on Earth? A) A B) B C) C D) D E) E The figure represents a cross section of the sea floor through a mid-ocean rift valley, with alternating patches of black and white indicating sea floor with reversed magnetic polarities.
At the arrow labeled “I” (the rift valley), the igneous rock of the sea floor is so young that it can be accurately dated using carbon-14 dating.
C) The Cambrian explosion is evidence for the instantaneous creation of life on Earth. 42) Assuming that the rate of sea-floor spreading was constant during the 1-million-year period depicted above, Earth’s magnetic field has undergone reversal at an average rate of once every A) 10,000 years. Note: The horizontal arrows indicate the direction of sea-floor spreading, away from the rift valley.
D) The Cambrian explosion marks the appearance of filter-feeding animals in the fossil record. 43) Which section of sea-floor crust should have the thickest layer of overlying sediment, assuming a continuous rate of sediment deposition?
polynucleotide polymerases with proofreading capability V. polynucleotide polymerases with high mismatch error rates A) I only B) I and IV C) I, III, and IV D) II and V E) II, III and V10) If the half-life of carbon-14 is about 5,730 years, then a fossil that has one-sixteenth the normal proportion of carbon-14 to carbon-12 should be about how many years old? plants and their associated fungi A) 2 and 4 B) 3 and 5 C) 1, 3, and 5 D) 2, 3, and 6 E) 2, 3, 5, and 626) If two continents converge and are united, then the collision should cause A) a net loss of intertidal zone and coastal habitat.
A) 1,400 B) 2,800 C) 11,200 D) 16,800 E) 22,90011) Which measurement(s) would help determine absolute dates by radiometric means? B) the extinction of any species adapted to intertidal and coastal habitats. D) They are found together in the same hybrid species.
Which of these questions is currently the most problematic and would have the greatest impact on our understanding if we were able to answer it?
A) How can amino acids, simple sugars, and nucleotides be synthesized abiotically? C) How did RNA sequences come to carry the code for amino acid sequences?
A) the accumulation of the daughter isotope B) the loss of parent isotopes C) the loss of daughter isotopes D) Three of the responses above are correct. C) an overall decrease in the surface area located in the continental interior. E) They have the same function.37) Many species of snakes lay eggs. E) directed selection.38) In the 5-7 million years that the hominid lineage has been diverging from its common ancestor with the great apes, dozens of hominid species have arisen, often with several species coexisting in time and space.
E) Two of the responses above are correct.13) What is true of the fossil record of mammalian origins? B) It shows that mammals and birds evolved from the same kind of dinosaur. D) a decrease in climatic extremes in the interior of the new supercontinent. D) Cretaceous extinctions.28) On the basis of their morphologies, how might Linnaeus have classified the Hawaiian silverswords? E) All five statements are true.34) The existence of the phenomenon of exaptation is most closely associated with which of the following observations that natural selection cannot fashion perfect organisms? D) Chance events affect the evolutionary history of populations in environments that can change unpredictably.35) One explanation for the evolution of insect wings suggests that wings began as lateral extensions of the body that were used as heat dissipaters for thermoregulation. E) examples of natural selection’s predictive ability.36) If one organ is an exaptation of another organ, then what must be true of these two organs? However, in the forests of northern Minnesota where growing seasons are short, only live-bearing snake species are present. As recently as 30,000 years ago, Homo sapiens coexisted with Homo neanderthalensis.
9) If natural selection in a particular environment favored genetic systems that permitted the production of daughter “cells” that were genetically dissimilar from the mother “cells,” then one should expect selection for which of the following? polynucleotide polymerase with low mismatch error rates II.